Way of the Warrior – The Lost Interview

A Twitter friend of mine dug up this ancient and forgotten interview that I gave from my Cambridge Mass apartment in 1994, during the development of our 3DO fighting game, Way of the Warrior. The original post can be found here, but he gave me permission to repost the whole thing here. It’s certainly one of my older interviews on record. I did a number in the 80s but those are pre-web and certainly long lost (unless I comb through my parent’s basement for old copies of EGM and the like!).

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Back in May I had a chance to interview Andy Gavin, one half of the team that makes up Naughty Dog Software. The other half consist of Jason Rubin who’s a graphic arts specialist. These guys are based in Cambridge, MA., where I happen to be from, and have created what may be the best fighting game for the 300. I played Way of the Warrior and it definitely blows the first Mortal Kombat away easily. The game is similar to Mortal Kombat in many ways. The digitized characters, fatalities, combos, blood galore, hidden characters, and special attacks are all here. What Way of the Warrior does is take if a step further with an amazing AI(Artificial Intelligence), characters that shrink and grow, over 50 attack moves for each character, 100% 3D scrolling, hidden weapons, interactive backgrounds, bonus items, and so much more. Let’s have a talk with Andy and see what he has to say about Way of the Warrior.

VGT: When did you first start programming video games?
Andy: About 1 0-12 years ago, the first game we made was Ski Crazed on the Apple II, which came out in 1986. It sold a couple thousand copies. Dream Zone was our next game that sold about 15000 copies. Keef the Thief, from Electronic Arts, did much better and sold about 50,000 copies on various machines. We then did Rings of Power, which was our only Genesis cartridge. It’s was very complex and sophisticated and took about 2 1/2 years to produce.
VGT: When was Naughty Dog founded?
Andy: Well , Naughty consists of mainly Jason Rubin and myself . Naughty got its names from a cartoon character that Jason drew. (Andy showed me a picture of an old Naughty Dog logo). Their new logo is on their flyers. The character was created about 8 years ago.
VGT: Is there any downside when programming on the 300 with their CO’s? Does access time and RAM space affect your games?
Andy: Well, first of all the 3DO has 3 megabytes, not mega bits of RAM, which is bigger then the largest SNES cartridge. The CD itself is 660 megabytes . There are technical issues that need to be addressed when programming on the 3DO. One has to use clever designs to reduce and eliminate load times. In Way of the Warrior the entire program was designed in what we call, Asynchronous. The loading is done while you play, by anticipating what needs to be loaded’ in advance with a hardware process called DMA (Direct Memory Access) . There ‘s a short pause going into a fight, but once the action has begun, there is no pause. Players can perform all their moves, with fatalities, 3D scrolling and the stereo music blaring, but with no load time.
VGT: So even though we’re playing continuously, there’s no slow down what’s so ever.
Andy: Yes, the 3DO is capable of loading stuff without any slow down. However, many previous CD games, including the 3DO, have had notable slow delays.

VGT: Like the Sega CD for instance?
Andy: Yes, this is due to sloppy, programming and not being aware of how to program on CD’s. It’s a difficult issue when writing programs that can actually play and load at the same time. It’s a technical challenge. With good program design the load time can be minimized. In turn, the quality of the sound effect, music, FMV, and game play surpass any cartridge game. Cartridge games only have a limited amount of memory in which you can program. CD’s only cost a dollar to manufacture, while cartridges can cost anywhere from 20-30 dollars. CD’s have enormously superior cost to storage ratio.
VGT: Can the access time for the Sega CD be reduced with technical design programming?
Andy: They can definitely reduce the access time. I don’t know that much about the Sega CD though. I don’t think their DMA is better than the 3DO. The 3DO has 4-5 times more memory. It also has a CD drive that’s twice as fast. It has decompression hardware that effectively doubles the speed. It has a unique and extremely powerful custom DMA architecture that can move graphics from disk to memory to screen and back without effecting game play.
VGT: What makes Way of the Warrior different from all the other fighting games?
Andy: As I mentioned before, I have an Artificial Intelligence Graduate degree from MIT. The computer players in WOTW are much more sophisticated then in other fighting games. Whereas they often resorted to patterns to beat the human players, there are no patterns programmed in for WOTW. It uses research grade AI that learns the best way to beat you. It’s extremely cunning and different and actually looks like a real player fighting by adapting to the situation and using all it’s moves.
VGT: Is it always learning consistently more and more each time you play it?
Andy: Yes.
VGT: What about the characters? What makes them so special.
Andy: The characters have around 50 normal moves and about 15-20 special moves. These moves reflect their styles and personalities. There are many secrets that use the background area and hidden characters can also be found.
VGT: So is each character equal in sense or are some stronger then others?
Andy: All the normal human characters are designed to be equal even though they’re different.
VGT: Well, I remember the first Street Fighter II game had very uneven characters. Some had a major advantage over others.
Andy: It’s tough to get the characters exactly even. We tried to get them as close as possible. People also developed different strategies for beaten the other characters. There are a lot of unique techniques and abilities for each character. Like Konotori, which means “stork” in Japanese, can flap and stay in the air longer. Major Gaines has special steroids’ implants that can change his size and therefore the amount of damage he receives become minimal. Nikki Chan is a Chinese Kung Fu artist who can do flips with special moves. She’s very fast and agile. Crimson Glory has close in grabs and special multi-missles that can be fired. Some character has special weapons. Nabu Naga has a sword and throwing stars. Shaky Jake has a staff.
VGT: There seems to be a little bit of everything from all the other fighting games in this game.
Andy: The other fighting games are very narrow. Most of them are to much alike. What we tried to do was take everything good from all the other fighting games and combine them all into WOTW. We’ve added unique features with better graphics, sounds, 3D backgrounds, special magic and potions, panning and zooming, background interaction, and larger more detailed characters.

VGT: Was the process of digitizing the characters the same as Mortal Kombat.
Andy: There are similarities. We’ve never seen them actually doing it. We have seen photos in magazines. They are actually a little more regimented then ours. Their fighting engine is much less sophisticated then WOFW. It requires that every characters moves line up to the exact same position. When each character does a high punch in Mortal Kombat, they high punch at the exact same point. So when they digitize their characters they have to line up perfectly. In WOTW, every character has its own information so not all characters need to have a high punch. Some of the characters punch high, some low, while others are tall, short, big and small. There’s no requirement that the character be the same size. We built the character the same way the actor would appear, rather then force them to convert to our pre-requirements.
VGT: With the 300 having such a small user base at this point, do you think it can increase sales and become successful?
Andy: We think it has a good chance. All game systems start off with a small user base. People forget the Genesis came out in August of 1989 and 2 years later when the Super Nintendo was released it only had 700,000 machines out there and only 23 games after the first year. 300 already has more then that. The 300 is the first of the 32/64bit machines and the difference is academic. Sony, Sega, and Nintendo have all announce 32/64bit systems that won’t be available until 1995. The 300 will be the only significant 32bit machine when Christmas comes. It will have a year of development by then and the price will probably drop some more. So I think it’s in good shape. We hope WOTW with help sell systems.
VGT: Are there any other projects being worked on for the 300?
Andy: We have 2 other projects we’re working on, but we can’t comment on them at this point.
VGT: Do you think that CD’s are the way to go for our future programmers?
Andy: I think this year is the year of the CD’s. It already has the PC market. It offers so many advantages in cost and amount of storage . The access time disadvantage can be overcome with well-designed machines and good programming techniques.

VGT: Are there any other types of games that Naughty Dog will be working on besides fighting?Andy: We signed a deal to put WOTW in the arcades.
VGT: If WOTW does come to the arcade, will it be different then the 3DO version.
Andy: It would be a bit different. The basis of it would be the same. There are different constraints for the arcade version. The 3DO is capable of producing arcade quality games.
VGT: What’s the most outstanding achievement you’ve seen in video games today? What games really blow your mind?
Andy: I have favorites over the years. I tried Ridge Racer which was very impressive looking, but had mediocre game play. In the PC world, “DOOM!” was very good looking. It shows us that 3D games are here and can be produced very well, even on PC’s.
VGT: Well, that’s about it for the questions. Thank you very much for taking the time to be interviewed by VGT. We all hope that Way of the Warrior is very successful and we look forward to reviewing it and any other games that are produced by Naughty Dog.
Andy: Your welcome. Thank you for choosing Naughty Dog as your first interview. We look forward to reading VGT when it’s released.

This is back to 2011 Andy. It’s so worth watching the totally hilarious video from our 1994 masterpiece (LOL). As you can see, we went for over the top.

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For what I’m up to now, click here.

Uncharted 3 Reviews Live

Reviews have started pouring in for Naughty Dog’s latest masterpiece, Uncharted 3. Given that this is the sequel to Uncharted 2, the multiple game of the year hit of 2009, one might’ve worried that there was nowhere to go but down. But not so for the unstoppable team at Naughty Dog. Check out the scores below pouring! IGN’s reviewer even goes so far as to call it his “new favorite game of all time!” Now, I can take no credit for any of the hard work the amazing team has put into the entire series, but I will stake a small claim to having brought the company up with an attitude of quality, quality, quality = consumer first = fun! Congratulations guys for keeping the torch burning brighter and brighter.

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Crash for Charity

PlayStation Museum has organized a charity auction of all four Naughty Dog Crash Bandicoot games, signed by yours truly and Jason Rubin. The auction link can be found here. All proceeds go to the American Cancer Society. Go bid!

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Crash Launch Commercials

In honor of the recent 15th Anniversary of my baby Crash Bandicoot, I present collected together the original suite of American TV Ads which premiered in September of 1996. It’s the suit that helped make the Bandicoot what he was.

Thanks to Playstation Museum for collecting and uploading these. You’re hurting my elbow!

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Crash Memories

In honor of Crash’s 15th Anniversary I wanted to make a post whose primary purpose is to serve as a repository for comments from you — the fans — about your first and favorite Crash Bandicoot impressions. Please make them in the comments. This is the place to tell that story of how you got your Playstation and Crash Bandicoot for Christmas when you were five, etc. etc. So to that effect, I’ll start it off with a brief tale that begins the night Crash Bandicoot launched.

In September 1996 all of Naughty Dog flew to New York for the combined Crash Bandicoot / Playstation 1 year anniversary party. It was on a big rooftop deck in the meat packing (hehe Beavis, you said meat packing) district. All of us got pretty drunk. There was a loud band. Very loud. Simultaneously, Ken Kutaragi (father of the Playstation!) decided to engage me in a highly technical discussion — against the 120 decibel background — using his rather broken English and my exactly zero command of Japanese. But in any case I didn’t sleep — we saw dawn in some New York greasy spoon.

About four hours later, Jason and I were on a plane to London. I didn’t sleep — why waste good reading time.

We arrived in London for ECTS and various Crash launch promotional meetings. We were immediately conducted to small hot smoky cubicles and interviewed by a variety of game journalists in numerous European languages for about eight hours — also against about 100 decibels of trade show. We then went to the bar (scotch). Then to dinner (wine). Then to a night club (more booze). Then a cigar bar (more scotch). Then to our hotel room (with about 15 or so European marketing and sales folk). There we consumed every single item in our minibar. We called down to the desk (4 in the morning) and had them bring us a NEW minibar. Yes, a complete refill of all items at 4 in the morning. We consumed that. Except for two miscellaneous tiny liquor bottles I can’t remember. The cost of just one minibar was 800 pounds sterling. We ate/drank two.

We didn’t sleep.

But we did spend another eight hours giving interviews. Then we went out again. That night I think we got 2-3 hours of sleep. But interviews again starting at 8am.

Somewhere in there I visited Westminster Abbey.

By day three we discovered that a number of our new friends (English) had never left the Island of Great Britain. So we all boarded the Chunnel and went to Paris (from Waterloo to Napoleon stations specifically, which is amusing). In Paris we started drinking at 10am. We kept drinking (many bars). We ate dinner (more wine). We went to someone’s apartment (more drinks). There was no sleep involved. After staying out all night (drinking) after the day of (drinking) we boarded the Chunnel back to London. I might have dozed. We went straight from there to the airport and got on a flight back to LAX.

Ah, first class. There were scones with clotted cream. And perhaps an hour or three of sleep. But we landed in LA at 7am. I was on the beach jogging by 8:30am. In the office at 10am. Back to work on the Japanese version of Crash. I went home early that day. Midnight.

Making video games builds stamina.

Don’t forget to put your own Crash memories in the comments section!

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So you want to be a video game programmer? – part 1 – Why

This post is a sequel of sorts to my How do I get a job designing video games. The good new is — if you’re a programmer — that nearly all video game companies are hiring programmers at all times. Demand is never satisfied. And the salaries are very very competitive.

The bad news is that it takes a hell of a lot of work to both be and become a great game programmer. Or maybe that isn’t such bad news, because you absolutely love programming, computers, and video games, right? If not, stop and do not goto 20.

I’m breaking this topic into a number of sub-posts. Although this is the intro, it was posted a day after the second, number 2, on types of game programmers, but I’m backing up and inserting this new number 1 (I’m a programmer, I know how to insert). Other posts will follow on topics like “how to get started” and “the interview.”

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So why would you want to be a video game programmer?

Let’s start with why you might want to be a programmer:

1. Sorcery. First and foremost, being a programmer is like being a wizard. I always wanted to be a wizard. Given that magic (as in the D&D variety) doesn’t seem to be real (damn!) programming is the next best thing. Computers are everywhere. They’re big, complex, and all sorts of cool everyday devices (like iPhones, set-top boxes, cars, and microwaves) are really basically computers — or at least the brains of them are. 99.9% of people have no idea how this technology works. As the late great Author C. Clarke said, “any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” Yay computers! If you actually know the arcane rituals, incantations, and spells to controls these dark powers then you are… drum roll please… a wizard.

2. Career security. Computers are the foundation of the 21st century economy. Nearly every new business is based on them. Knowing the above incantations is secret sauce. All the growth is in high tech (product possibility frontier and all that). Hiring is supply and demand too. The demand is for programmers and other high tech specialists.

3. Even more career security. Programming is hard. It requires a big New Cortex style brain. This means lots of people can’t do it. It takes years of study and practice. I’ve been programming for 30 years and there is still an infinite amount for me to learn. Awesome!

4. It’s a rush. Creating stuff is a rush. Making the infernal machine bend to your warlocky will is a huge thrill. It never gets boring and there is always more to learn (related to #3).

5. It pays really well. This is related to #2 and #3. People need programmers and they can’t get enough, so they have to pay competitively for them. Even in the late 90s early 00s at Naughty Dog it was very rare for us to start ANY programmer at less than $100,000, even ones right out of school. Good ones made a lot more. And if you’re a total kick-ass grand master wizard (nerd) like Bill Gates or Mark Zuckerberg you can even start your own company and make billions. Take that you muscle bound warriors!

6. Solo contributions. You like spending time with machines and find all day dealing with illogical humans at least partially tedious. Sorry to say it, but even though most professional programming is done in teams a lot of time is spent at the keyboard. For some of us, this ain’t a bad thing.

7. Socialization. You need an excuse to hang out with others. On the flip side, because of this team thing you’ll be forced to socialize on and off between coding. This socialization will have certain structural support. This is convenient for the would-be wizard, master of demons but terrifying forces, but afraid of starting conversations.

So why would you want to be a video game programmer specifically?

8. Video game programming is really hard. Probably the hardest of the hard. It combines cutting edge graphics, effects, the latest hardware, artistic constraints, tons of competition, very little memory, and all sorts of difficult goodies. The really serious wizards apply here.

9. Other types. Video game teams have artists, musicians, and designers on them too. Lots of tech jobs don’t (although they sometimes have those pesky marking folks). Artists etc are cool. They know how to draw or compose cool stuff which makes your code look and sound much cooler.

10. Consumer driven. If you make it to work on a professional game they often sell lots of copies and people will have heard of what you do. This is much much cooler than saying “I worked on the backend payment scheme of the Bank of America ATM.” It’s so cool that it might even get you laid — which is an important concern for bookish wizards of both genders.

11. It’s visual. Seeing your creations move about the screen and spatter into bloody bits is way more exciting than that green text on the bank ATM. Talented artists and sound designers will come to you with said bloody bits and all sorts of squishy sounds which will make your coding look 1000x more cool than it would by itself. If you aren’t into bloody bits than you can work on a game where enemies explode into little cartoon rings. It’s all cool.

12. It’s creative. For me, I have to create worlds and characters. I’ve been doing so my whole life. Right now I’m not even programming but I’m writing novels, which is also about creating. Programming in general is pretty creative, but game programming is probably the most so.

13. Love. You love video games so much that working on them 100+ hours a week seems like far less of a chore than any other job you can think of!

I’m sure there are more reasons, but the above seem pretty damn compelling.

CONTINUED HERE with Part 2: “The Specs”

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Parts of this series are: [Why, The Specs, Getting Started, School, Method]

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Old Crash 20 Questions

This is an old Crash Bandicoot 20 questions that used to be on Naughty Dog‘s site a long time ago. I’ve gotten a lot of messages looking for them, so I dug them up, but I haven’t done any editing except for trivial formatting. They are served up “as is.” Additionally, the links in here are ancient and might not work.

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1) Q: Are you all insane?
A:
Technically…yes.
2) Q: Help! I’m stuck in Crash! Can you give me some help?
A: No. But GameSpot
has a full walkthrough of Crash 2 online. Game Informer
Online also has good ones for Crash 1, 2, and Warped.
Or you can pony up a few more shekels and buy the
hint guides to Crash 1 and Crash 2 from Dimension
Publishing, or the strategy guides to Crash Bandicoot:
Warped and CTR (Crash Team Racing) from Prima. They
are the only ones with pictures of Crash on the cover.
Don’t be taken in by one of the unofficial hack jobs
out there, though. They all have errors. (ed.
note: Links to sites mentioned above were removed
because they are no longer active… sorry, that’s
the web for ya.)
3) Q: In Crash Bandicoot: Warped, what times are needed to earn each relic?
A:
  • “TOAD VILLAGE” sap 1:03:00 gold 0:57:53 plat 0:44:06
  • “UNDER PRESSURE” sap 1:46:00 gold 1:17:93 plat 1:10:50
  • “ORIENT EXPRESS” sap 0:41:00 gold 0:27:80 plat 0:18:10
  • “BONE YARD” sap 1:45:00 gold 1:40:21 plat 1:21:00
  • “MAKIN’ WAVES” sap 1:08:00 gold 0:58:23 plat 0:53:26
  • ——————-
  • “GEE WIZ” sap 1:35:00 gold 1:22:73 plat 1:05:93
  • “HANG’EM HIGH” sap 1:24:00 gold 0:52:66 plat 0:43:80
  • “HOG RIDE” sap 0:45:00 gold 0:41:46 plat 0:35:06
  • “TOMB TIME” sap 1:42:00 gold 1:10:00 plat 0:53:93
  • “MIDNIGHT RUN” sap 0:53:00 gold 0:38:23 plat 0:18:20
  • ——————–
  • “DINO MIGHT!” sap 1:34:00 gold 1:25:76 plat 1:03:00
  • “DEEP TROUBLE” sap 1:47:00 gold 1:25:16 plat 1:18:36
  • “HIGH TIME” sap 2:12:00 gold 1:04:12 plat 0:56:96
  • “ROAD CRASH” sap 1:25:00 gold 1:20:73 plat 1:17:10
  • “DOUBLE HEADER” sap 1:27:00 gold 1:21:16 plat 0:59:43
  • ——————–
  • “SPHYNXINATOR” sap 1:42:00 gold 1:22:66 plat 0:56:70
  • “BYE BYE BLIMPS” sap 1:09:00 gold 0:58:43 plat 0:51:50
  • “TELL NO TALES” sap 1:42:00 gold 1:25:66 plat 1:05:26
  • “FUTURE FRENZY” sap 2:01:00 gold 1:34:00 plat 1:19:66
  • “TOMB WADER” sap 2:44:00 gold 1:45:06 plat 1:24:00
  • ———————
  • “GONE TOMORROW” sap 2:05:00 gold 1:25:60 plat 1:02:13
  • “ORANGE ASPHALT” sap 1:36:00 gold 1:31:30 plat 1:21:80
  • “FLAMING PASSION” sap 1:43:00 gold 1:13:10 plat 0:59:40
  • “MAD BOMBERS” sap 2:08:00 gold 1:55:23 plat 1:38:16
  • “BUG LITE” sap 1:49:00 gold 1:34:86 plat 1:14:93
  • ———————-
  • “SKI CRAZED” sap 1:16:00 gold 0:50:50 plat 0:33:33
  • “AREA 51?” sap 1:53:00 gold 1:49:83 plat 1:44:50
  • “RINGS OF POWER” sap 1:20:00 gold 1:01:46 plat 0:51:76
  • “HOT COCO” sap 1:00:00 gold 0:30:10 plat 0:19:96
  • “EGGIPUS REX” sap 0:55:00 gold 0:50:03 plat 0:44:83
4) Q: (a) What is a Bandicoot?
(b) Why is Crash a Bandicoot?
(c) Why is he named “Crash?”
A:
(a) Crash is a Perameles gunnii, of the order POLYPROTODONTA,
family Peramelidae, commonly known as the Eastern Barred
Bandicoot. He is a marsupial, which means that he is born with a
built in fanny pack. They live in Tasmania, a small island south
of Australia, as well as on the Australian mainland. The
Parameles gunnii is, on average, 320mm from head to rump, and has
a 80mm tail. They weigh about 950g. Crash’s family, on the other
hand, tend to be about a meter tall, orange, walk on their hind
legs, and wear big shoes. They have, therefore, earned a good
living in the Parameles gunnii circus sideshow spinning real fast
and the like.
(b)Because both of his parents were.(c) Because that is the name his parents gave him.
5) Q: We want toys and stuff. When will we get them?
A: Where have you been? A toy company
named Resaurus recently released their second series of Crash Bandicoot
posable action figures! They made the Duke Nukem and Quake toys, so
you know they are good. Other stuff is in the works as well. Check
‘em out!
6) Q: (a) Why did you choose to make Crash Bandicoot for the
PlayStation?
(b) Are there plans to port any of the Crash games, or make original Crash games for other systems?
A:
(a) Picking a game system, or “platform”, at the beginning of a
project is like picking horses before a horse race. It is more
of an art than a science. When we began Crash 1, the only 32 bit
systems available were the 3DO and the Atari Jagauar. There were
rumors about the coming PlayStation game console and the Sega
Saturn, and distant rumblings about the N64. It was easy to toss
the 3DO and Jaguar, neither had the power. And the fact that the
N64 wasn’t going to have a CD ROM drive made it ineligible. In
the end, we chose the PlayStation game console because it had the
best mix of power and storage. Based on its worldwide sales,
game players have picked the PlayStaton game console as well.
Looks like we picked the winning horse!
(b) Until recently, PlayStation has been the only system capable of
handling the sophisticated graphics and gameplay of the Crash Bandicoot
games. The Saturn doesn’t have the power. N64 cartridges cannot hold
the data. Also, Crash likes the PlayStation. Naughty Dog has no idea what
Crash’s future holds. We do not control his destiny. You’ll have to ask him.CTR (Crash Team Racing) is our last game working with Crash (and our last title
for the first generation PlayStation). Naughty Dog’s future lies with
completely new characters on PlayStation 2.

7) Q: What are Naughty Dog’s favorite games?
A:
We wish the following games had never come out. They have
killed our productivity:
Goldeneye(N64)Gran Turismo(PlayStation)Command & Conquer (PlayStation & PC)

Tekken 3 (PlayStation)

Mario Kart 64 (N64)

Spyro (PlayStation)

Point Blank (PlayStation)

Beatmania (PlayStation)

Metal Gear Solid (PlayStation)

Banjo & Kazooie (N64)

8 ) Q: What other developers do you respect?
A: We don’t sleep well because we know
that Rare, Miyamoto san, the Gran Turismo team, and the Gex 2 team
are out there. So we’ve hired the lead programmer and lead designers
from the Gex 2 team (Dan
Arey
, Daniel
Chan
, Evan Wells.)
They don’t frighten us anymore. Miyamoto
san
, on the other hand, keeps turning our offers down!
9) Q: Does Dr. Neo Cortex use Rogaine?
A:
Yes, but only on the sides of his head.
10) Q: (a) What is it like to work at Naughty Dog?
(b) Are you hiring?
(c) What is it like to work with Sony?
A:
(a)We don’t know. Nobody here considers what we do to be work.
(b) Check
our job opportunities page
.(c) We don’t know. The people we interact with at Sony are
so good that we don’t have to work at it. Seriously, we just
make the game, they take care of the rest.
11) Q: Naughty Dog created the first software z-buffer for the PlayStation. How did you do it?
A:
Greg coded it. We don’t know how it works. It just does.
12) Q: Where do the Naughty Dog artists come up with their ideas?
A: The Naughty Dog artists are so used
to Crash’s world now that it doesn’t seem like designing, so much
as just making 3D models of a world that already exists. Still, there
is a lot of exploration on paper, as well as on the computer before
the final locations and characters exist. Take a look in our Art
Gallery
for some samples.
13) Q: (a) How many polygons is Crash?
(b) How many frames of animation does he have?
(c) How do you animate him?
A:
(a)532 triangles.
(b) In Crash 2, Crash had over 9000 individual
frames of animation @ 30 frames per second. In Warped,
Crash had around 30,000 frames! We believe this to
be more than any other console game character. If
we are wrong, e-mail usand we will change this answer.(c) We attach motion capture equipment to Crash and ask
him to do the moves we need for the game.
14) Q: What is your favorite food?
A:
The artists like sushi and Chinese, as well as Mexican. The
programmers are on the “flat diet”. We lock them in their room
until they finish a project and only give them whatever food fits
under the door. Pizza – yes. Pancakes – Yes. Hamburgers – Yes,
one layer at a time. Chicken – Yes, but it tastes horrible after
all of the shoving. They are very thristy.
15) Q: Crash doesn’t have any graphic violence. Are you against graphic violence?
A:
No, and if you ask us that question another #$@! time we’ll kick
your @#X* and rip your !@% off! Crash doesn’t need violence.
It’s that simple.
16) Q: How do I become a video game programmer?
A: All of the Naughty Dog programmers
started programming when they were very young. They all had computers
at home, and they would all spend a good deal of time in the basement
doing what was called “hacking”. Some of them took computer-related
courses in High School, but at that time you didn’t need to know that
much about computers to teach the computer lab teacher a thing or
three. Andy got
a post graduate degree in Artificial Intelligence, but one of the
biggest arguments in Artificial Intelligence is whether or not it
even exists. All the Naughty Dog programmers work very hard, keep
long hours, and have the ability to say things that make you confused.
17) Q: What percentage of the PlayStation’s power are you using for each Crash game?
A:
All of it. 110 volts. Exactly what is in your wall socket. But
there is a lot more that we can do with the 110 volts in the
future. Look for the next PlayStation games we work on to look
better and better.
18) Q: Is Crash related to the Tasmanian Devil?
A:
The Tasmanian Devil refuses to do blood tests, so we may never
know.
19) Q: What kind of shoes does Crash Bandicoot wear?
A: Big red ones. Though
if Nike would like to sponsor Crash and start a line
of shoes like “Air Jordans” called “Spin Crashes,”
we are open to offers.
20) Q: Are there only twenty questions?
A:
Yes, so far.
21) Q: I thought there were only 20 questions. Why is there a 21?
A:
Because Naughty Dog is firmly AGAINST antidisestablishmentarianism.
Go look it up.
_

The index of all Crash posts is here.

The Making Crash series: [12345678910, 11, 12]

Subscribe to the blog (on the right), or follow me at:

Andy:  or blog

Also, peek at my novel: The Darkening Dream

or more posts on

GAMES or BOOKS/MOVIES/TV or WRITING or FOOD.

All Your Base Are Belong to Us

Title: All Your Base Are Belong to Us

Author: Harold Goldberg

Genre: Video Game History

Length: 306 pages

Read: April 5, 2011

Summary: All the good stories!

_

This new addition to the field of video game histories is a whirlwind tour of the medium from the 70s blips and blobs to the Facebook games of today, with everything in the middle included. Given the herculean task of covering 45+ years of gaming history in a completely serial fashion would probably result in about 4,000 pages, Goldberg has wisely chosen to snapshot pivotal stories. He seizes on some of the most important games, and even more importantly, the zany cast of creatives who made them.

My personal favorite is Chapter 8, “The Playstation’s Crash” featuring none other than that lovable Bandicoot, myself, Jason, Mark Cerny and various other friends. This chapter covers loosely the same subject matter that Jason and I detail in our lengthy series of Crash blogs (found here). It’s even 98% accurate! :-) If you enjoyed our Crash posts, I highly recommend you check out this book, as it includes not only some extra insights there, but 18 other chapters about other vitally important games or moments in gaming history.

These include old Atari, the great 80s crash, Mario, Tetris, EA, Adventure Games, Sierra Online, EverQuest, WOW, Bioshock, Rockstar, Bejeweled, and more. All are very entertaining, and focus heavily on the personalities behind the scenes — and boy, are there personalities in this business! In many ways this reminds me of Hackers, which is dated, but was one of my favorite books on the 80s computer revolution.

So click, buy, and enjoy!

For my series on Making Crash Bandicoot, CLICK HERE.

Crash Bandicoot – Teaching an Old Dog New Bits – part 3

This is the twelfth of a now lengthy series of posts on the making of Crash Bandicoot. Click here for the PREVIOUS or for the BEGINNING of the whole mess.

The text below is another journal article I wrote on making Crash in 1999. This is the third part, the FIRST can be found here.

_

The Crash Bandicoot Trilogy: A Practical Example

The three Crash Bandicoot games represent a clear example of the process of technology and gameplay refinement on a single platform.  Crash Bandicoot was Naughty Dog’s first game on the Sony Playstation game console, and its first fully 3D game.  With Crash Bandicoot 2: Cortex Strikes Back and Crash Bandicoot: Warped, we were able to improve the technology, and offer a slicker more detailed game experience in successively less development time.  With the exception of added support for the Analog Joystick, Dual Shock Controller, and Sony Pocketstation the hardware platforms for the three titles are identical.

Timely and reasonably orderly development of a video game title is about risk management.  Given that you have a certain amount of time to develop the title, you can only allow for a certain quantity of gameplay and technology risks during the course of development.  One of the principle ways in which successive games improve is by the reuse of these risks.  Most solutions which worked for the earlier game will work again, if desired, in the new game.  In addition, many techniques can be gleaned from other games on the same machine that have been released during the elapsed time.

In the case of sequels such as the later Crash games there is even more reduction of risk.  Most gameplay risks, as well as significant art, code, and sound can be reused.  This allows the development team to concentrate on adding new features, while at the same time retaining all the good things about the old game.  The result is that sequels are empirically better games.

Crash Bandicoot   -   how do we do character action in 3D?

Development: September 1994 – September 1996

Staff: 9 people: 3 programmers, 4 artists, 1 designer, 1 support

Premise: Do for the ultra popular platform action game genre what Virtua Fighter had done for fighting games: bring it into 3D.  Design a very likeable broad market character and place him in a fun, and fast paced action game.  Attempt to occupy the “official character” niche on the then empty Playstation market.  Remember, that by the fall of 1994 no one had yet produced an effective 3D platform action game.

Gameplay risk: how do you design and control an action character in 3D such that the feel is as natural and intuitive as in 2D?

When we first asked ourselves, “what do you get if you put Sonic the Hedgehog (or any other character action game for that matter) in 3D,” the answer that came to mind was: “a game where you always see Sonic’s Ass.”  The entire question of how to make a platform game in 3D was the single largest design risk on the project.  We spent 9 months struggling with this before there was a single fun level.  However, by the time this happened we had formulated many of the basic concepts of the Crash gameplay.

We were trying to preserve all of the good elements of classic platform games.  To us this meant really good control, faced paced action, and progressively ramping challenges.  In order to maintain a very solid control feel we opted to keep the camera relatively stable, and to orient the control axis with respect to the camera.  Basically this means that Crash moves into the screen when you push up on the joypad.  This may seem obvious, but it was not at the time, and there are many 3D games which use different (and usually inferior) schemes.

Technical risk: how do you get the Playstation CPU and GPU to draw complex organic scenes with a high degree of texture and color complexity, good sorting, and a solid high resolution look?

It took quite a while, a few clever tricks, and not a little bit of assembly writing and rewriting of the polygon engines.  One of our major realizations was that on a CD based game system with a 33mhz processor, it is favorable to pre-compute many kinds of data in non real-time on the faster workstations, and then use a lean fast game engine to deliver high performance.

Technical risk: how do the artists build and maintain roughly 1 million polygon levels with per poly and per vertex texture and color assignment?

The challenge of constructing large detailed levels turned out to be one of the biggest challenges of the whole project.  We didn’t want to duplicate the huge amount of work that has gone into making the commercial 3D modeling packages, so we chose to integrate with one of them.  We tried Softimage at first, but a number of factors caused us to switch to AliasPower Animator.  When we began the project it was not possible to load and view a one million polygon level on a 200mhz R4400 Indigo II Extreme.  We spent several months creating a system and tools by which smaller chunks of the level could be hierarchically assembled into a larger whole.

In addition, the commercial packages were not aware that anyone would desire per polygon and per vertex control over texture, color, and shading information.  They used a projective texture model preferred by the film and effects industry.  In order to maximize the limited amount of memory on the Playstation we knew we would need to have very detailed control.  So we created a suite of custom tools to aid in the assignment of surface details to Power Animator models.  Many of these features have since folded into the commercial programs, but at the time we were among the first to make use of this style of model construction.

Technical risk: how do you get a 200mhz R4400 Indigo II to process a 1 million polygon level?

For the first time in our experience, it became necessary to put some real thought into the design of the offline data processing pipeline.  When we first wrote the level processing tool it took 20 hours to run a small test case.  A crisis ensued and we were forced to both seriously optimize the performance of the tool and multithread it so that the process could be distributed across a number of workstations.

Conventional wisdom says that game tools are child’s play.  Historically speaking, this is a fair judgment — 2D games almost never involve either sophisticated preprocessing or huge data sets.  But now that game consoles house dedicated polygon rendering hardware, the kid gloves are off.

In Crash Bandicoot players explore levels composed of over a million polygons.  Quick and dirty techniques that work for smaller data sets (e.g., repeated linear searches instead of binary searches or hash table lookups) no longer suffice.  Data structures now matter — choosing one that doesn’t scale well as the problem size increases leads to level processing tasks that take hours instead of seconds.

The problems have gotten correspondingly harder, too.  Building an optimal BSP tree, finding ideal polygon strips, determining the best way to pack data into fixed-size pages for CD streaming — these are all tough problems by any metric, academic or practical.

To make matters worse, game tools undergo constant revision as the run-time engine evolves towards the bleeding edge of available technology.  Unlike many jobs, where programmers write functional units according to a rigid a priori specification, games begin with a vague “what-if” technical spec — one that inevitably changes as the team learns how to best exploit the target machine for graphics and gameplay.

The Crash tools became a test bed for developing techniques for large database management, parallel execution, data flexibility, and complicated compression and bin packing techniques.

Art / Technical risk: how do you make low poly 3D characters that don’t look like the “Money for Nothing” video?

From the beginning, the Crash art design was very cartoon in style.  We wanted to back up our organic stylized environments with highly animated cartoon characters that looked 3D, but not polygonal.  By using a single skinned polygonal mesh model similar to the kind used in cutting edge special effects shots (except with a lot less polygons),  we were able to create a three dimensional cartoon look.  Unlike the traditional “chain of sausages” style of modeling, the single skin allows interesting “squash and stretch” style animation like that in traditional cartoons.

By very careful hand modeling, and judicious use of both textured and shaded polygons, we were able to keep these models within reasonable polygon limits.  In addition, it was our belief that because Crash was the most important thing in the game, he deserved a substantial percentage of the game’s resources.  Our animation system allows Crash to have unique facial expressions for each animation, helping to convey his personality.

Technical risk: how do you fit a million polygons, tons of textures, thousands of frames of animation, and lots of creatures into a couple megs of memory?

Perhaps the single largest technical risk of the entire project was the memory issue.  Although there was a plan from the beginning, this issue was not tackled until February of 1996.  At this point we had over 20 levels in various stages of completion, all of which consumed between 2 and 5 megabytes of memory.  They had to fit into about 1.2 megabytes of active area.

At the beginning of the project we had decided that the CD was the system resource least likely to be fully utilized, and that system memory (of various sorts) was going to be one of the greatest constraints.  We planned to trade CD bandwidth and space for increased level size.

The Crash series employs an extremely complicated virtual memory scheme which dynamically swaps into memory any kind of game component: geometry, animation, texture, code, sound, collision data, camera data, etc.  A workstation based tool called NPT implements an expert system for laying out the disk.  This tool belongs to the class of formal Artificially Intelligence programs.  Its job is to figure out how the 500 to 1000 resources that make up a Crash level can be arranged so as to never have more than 1.2 megabytes needed in memory at any time.  A multithreaded virtual memory implementation follows the instructions produced by the tool in order to achieve this effect at run time.  Together they manage and optimize the essential resources of main, texture, and sound RAM based on a larger CD based database.

Technical/Design risk: what to do with the camera?

With the 32 bit generation of games, cameras have become a first class character in any 3D game.  However, we did not realize this until considerably into the project.  Crash represents our first tentative stab at how to do an aesthetic job of controlling the camera without detracting from gameplay.  Although it was rewritten perhaps five times during the project, the final camera is fairly straightforward from the perspective of the user.  None of the crop of 1995 and 1996 3D action games played very well until Mario 64 and Crash.  These two games, while very different, were released within two months of each other, and we were essentially finished with Crash when we first saw Mario.  Earlier games had featured some inducement of motion sickness and a difficulty for the players in quickly judging the layout of the scene.  In order to enhance the tight, high impact feel of Crash’s gameplay, we were fairly conservative with the camera.  As a result Crash retains the quick action feel of the traditional 2D platform game more faithfully than other 3D games.

Technical risk: how do you make a character collide in a reasonable fashion with an arbitrary 3D world… at 30 frames a second?

Another of the games more difficult challenges was in the area of collision detection.  From the beginning we believed this would be difficult, and indeed it was.  For action games, collision is a critical part of the overall feel of the game.  Since the player is looking down on a character in the 3rd person he is intimately aware when the collision does not react reasonably.

Crash can often be within a meter or two of several hundred polygons.  This means that the game has to store and process a great deal of data in order to calculate the collision reactions.  We had to comb through the computer science literature for innovative new ways of compressing and storing this database.  One of our programmers spent better than six months on the collision detection part of the game, writing and rewriting the entire system half a dozen times.  Finally, with some very clever ideas, and a lot of hacks, it ended up working reasonably well.

Technical risk: how do you program, coordinate, and maintain the code for several hundred different game objects?

Object control code, which the gaming world euphemistically calls AI, typically runs only a couple of times per frame. For this kind of code, speed of implementation, flexibility, and ease of later modification are the most important requirements.  This is because games are all about gameplay, and good gameplay only comes from constant experimentation with and extensive reworking of the code that controls the game’s objects.

The constructs and abstractions of standard programming languages are not well suited to object authoring, particularly when it comes to flow of control and state.  For Crash Bandicoot we implemented GOOL (Game Oriented Object LISP), a compiled language designed specifically for object control code that addresses the limitations of traditional languages.

Having a custom language whose primitives and constructs both lend them selves to the general task (object programming), and are customizable to the specific task (a particular object) makes it much easier to write clean descriptive code very quickly.  GOOL makes it possible to prototype a new creature or object in as little as 10 minutes.  New things can be tried and quickly elaborated or discarded. If the object doesn’t work out it can be pulled from the game in seconds without leaving any hard to find and wasteful traces behind in the source.  In addition, since GOOL is a compiled language produced by an advanced register coloring compiler with reductions, flow analysis, and simple continuations it is at least as efficient as C, more so in many cases because of its more specific knowledge of the task at hand.  The use of a custom compiler allowed us to escape many of the classic problems of C.

Crash Bandicoot 2: Cortex Strikes Back  -   Bigger and Badder!

Development: October 1996 – November 1997

Staff: 14 people: 4 programmers, 6 artists, 1 designer, 3 support

Premise: Make a sequel to the best selling Crash Bandicoot that delivered on all the good elements of the first game, as well as correcting many of our mistakes.  Increasing the technical muscle of the game, and improving upon the gameplay, all without looking “been there done that…” in one year.

For Crash 2 we rewrote approximately 80% of the game engine and tool code.  We did so module by module in order to allow continuous development of game levels.  Having learned during Crash 1 about what we really needed out of each module we proceeded to rewrite them rapidly so that they offered greater speed and flexibility.

Technical risk: A fancy new tools pipeline designed to deal with a constantly changing game engine?

The workstation based tools pipeline was a crucial part of Crash 1.  However, at the time of its original conception, it was not clear that this was going to be the case.  The new Crash 2 tools pipe was built around a consistent database structure designed to allow the evolution of level databases, automatic I/O for complex data types, data browsing and searching, and a number of other features.  The pipe was modularized and various built-in restrictions were removed.  The new pipe was able to support the easy addition of arbitrary new types of data and information to various objects without outdating old information.

We could never have designed such a clean tool program that would be able to handle the changes and additions of Crash 2 and Warped at the beginning of the first game.  Being aware of what was needed at the start of the rewrite allowed us to design a general infrastructure that could support all of the features we had in mind.  This infrastructure was then flexible enough to support the new features added to both sequels.

Technical/process risk: The process of making and refining levels took too long during the first game.  Can we improve it?

The most significant bottleneck in making Crash 1 was the overall time it took to build and tune a level.  So for Crash 2 we took a serious look at this process and attempted to improve it.

For the artists, the task of surfacing polygons (applying texture and color) was very time consuming.  Therefore, we made improvements to our surfacing tools.

For both the artists and designers, the specification of different resources in the level was exceedingly tedious.  So we added a number of modules to the tools pipeline designed to automatically balance and distribute many of these resources, as well as to auto calculate the active ranges of objects and other resources that had to be controlled manually in the first game.  In addition, we moved the specification of camera, camera info, game objects, and game object info into new text based configuration files.  These files allowed programmers and designers to edit and add information more easily, and it also allowed the programmers to add new kinds of information quickly and easily.

The result of this process was not really that levels took any less time to make, but that the complexity allowed was several times that of the first game.  Crash 2 levels are about twice as large, have integrated bonus levels, multiple branches, “hard paths,” and three or four times as many creatures, each with an order of magnitude more settable parameters.  The overall turn around time for changing tunable level information was brought down significantly.

Technical/Design risk: can we make a better more flexible camera?

The camera was one of the things in Crash 1 with which we were least satisfied.  So in order to open up the game and make it feel more lifelike, we allowed the camera to look around much more, and supported a much wider set of branching and transition cameras.  In addition, arbitrary parameterized information was added to the camera system so that at any location the camera had more than 100 possible settable options.

If the two games are compared side by side, it can be seen that the overall layouts of Crash 2 levels are much larger and more complicated.  The camera is more natural and fluid, and there are numerous dynamic camera transitions and effects which were not present in the first game.  Even though the Crash 2 camera was written entirely from scratch, the lessons learned during the course of Crash 1 allowed it to be more sophisticated and aggressive, and it executed faster than its predecessor.

Optimization risk: can we put more on screen?

Crash 1 was one of the fastest games of its generation, delivering high detail images at 30 frames per second.  Nevertheless, for Crash 2 we wanted to put twice as much on screen, yet still maintain that frame-rate.  In order to achieve this goal we had one programmer doing nothing but re-coding areas of the engine into better assembly for the entire length of the project.  Dramatically increasing performance does not just mean moving instructions around; it is a complex and involved process.  First we study the performance of all relevant areas of the hardware in a scientific and systematic fashion.  Profiles are made of cache latencies, coprocessor parallel processing constraints, etc.  Game data structures are then carefully rearranged to aid the engine in loading and processing them in the most efficient way.  Complicated compression and caching schemes are explored to both reduce storage size (often linked to performance due to bus bandwidth) and to speed up the code.

Simultaneously we modularized the game engine to add more flexibility and features.  Crash 2 has more effects, such as Z-buffer-like water effects, weather, reflections, particles, talking hologram heads, etc.  Many annoying limitations of the Crash 1 drawing pipeline were removed, and most importantly, the overall speed was increased by more than two-fold.

In order to further improve performance and allow more simultaneous creatures on screen, we re-coded the GOOL interpreter into assembly, and also modified the compiler to produce native MIPS assembly for even better performance.

Technical risk: if we can put more on screen, can we fit it in memory?

We firmly believe that all three Crash games make use of the CD in a more aggressive fashion than most Playstation games.  So in order to fit the even larger Crash 2 levels into memory (often up to 12 megabytes a level) we had to increase the efficiency of the virtual memory scheme even more.  To do so we rewrote the AI that lays out the CD, employing several new algorithms.  Since different levels need different solutions we created a system by which the program could automatically try different approaches with different parameters, and then pick the best one.

In addition, since Crash 2 has about 8 times the animation of the first game, we needed to really reduce the size of the data without sacrificing the quality of the animation.  After numerous rewrites the animation was stored as a special bitstream compressed in all 4 dimensions.

Design risk: can we deliver a gameplay experience that is more than just “additional levels of Crash?”

We believe that game sequels are more than an opportunity to just go “back to the bank.”  For both of the Crash sequels we tried to give the player a new game, that while very much in the same style, was empirically a bigger, better game.  So with the increased capacity of the new Crash 2 engine we attempted to build larger more interesting levels with a greater variety of gameplay, and a more even and carefully constructed level of difficulty progression.  Crash 2 has about twice as many creatures as Crash 1, and their behaviors are significantly more sophisticated.  For example, instead of just putting the original “turtle” back into the game, we added two new and improved turtles, which had all the attributes of the Crash 1 turtle, but also had some additional differences and features.  In this manner we tried to build on the work from the first game.

Crash himself remains the best example.  In the second game Crash retains all of the moves from the first, but gains a number of interesting additional moves: crawling, ducking, sliding, belly flopping, plus dozens of custom coded animated death sequences.  Additionally, Crash has a number of new control specs: ice, surfboard, jet-pack, baby bear riding, underground digging, and hanging.  These mechanics provide entirely new game machines to help increase the variety and fun factor of the game.  It would be very difficult to include all of these in a first generation game because so much time is spent refining the basic mechanic.

Technically, these additions and enhancements were aided by the new more flexible information specification of the new tools pipeline, and by additions to the GOOL programming language based on lessons learned from the first game.

Crash Bandicoot: Warped!  -   Every trick in the book!

Development: January 1998 – November 1998

Staff: 15 people: 3 programmers, 7 artists, 3 designers, 2 support

Premise: With only 9 months in which to finish by Christmas, we gave ourselves the challenge of making a third Crash game which would be even cooler and more fun than the previous one.  We chose a new time travel theme and wanted to differentiate the graphic look and really increase the amount and variety of gameplay.  This included power-ups, better bosses, lots of new control mechanics, an open look, and multiple playable characters.

Technical/Process risk: the tight deadline and a smaller programming staff required us to explore options for even greater efficiency.

The Crash Warped production schedule required that we complete a level every week.  This was nearly twice the rate typical of Crash levels.  In addition, many of the new levels for Warped required new engines or sub-engines designed to give them a more free-roaming 3D style.  In order to facilitate this process we wrote an interactive listener which allowed GOOL based game objects to be dynamically examined, debugged, and tuned.  We were then able to set the parameters and features of objects in real-time, greatly improving our ability to tune and debug levels.  Various other visual debugging and diagnostic techniques were also introduced as well.

Knowledge from the previous game allowed us to further pipeline various processes.  The Crash series is heavily localized for different territories.  The European version supports five languages, text and speech, including lip sync.  In addition, it was entirely re-timed, and the animation was resampled for 25hz.  The Japanese version has Pocketstation support, a complete language translation, and a number of additional country specific features.  We were able to build in the features needed to make this happen as we wrote the US version of the game.  The GOOL language was expanded to allow near automatic conversion of character control timing for PAL.

Technical/Art risk: could the trademark look of the Crash series be opened up to offer long distance views and to deliver levels with free-roaming style gameplay?

In order to further differentiate the third Crash game, we modified the engine to support long distance views and Level of Detail (LOD) features.  Crash Warped has a much more open look than the previous games, with views up to ten times as far.  The background polygon resource manager needed some serious reworking in order to handle this kind of increased polygon load, as did the AI memory manager.  We developed the new LOD system to help manage these distance views.  These kinds of system complexities would not have been feasible in a first generation game, since when we started Crash 1, the concept of LOD in games was almost completely undeveloped, and just getting a general engine working was enough of a technical hurdle.

Similarly, the stability of the main engine allowed us to concentrate more programmer time on creating and polishing the new sub-engines:  jet-ski, motorcycle, and biplane.

Gameplay risk: could we make the gameplay in the new Crash significantly different from the previous ones and yet maintain the good elements of the first two games?

The new free-roaming style levels presented a great gameplay challenge.  We felt it necessary to maintain the fast-paced, forward driven Crash style of gameplay even in this new context.  The jet-ski in particular represented a new kind of level that was not present in the first two games.  It is part race game, part vehicle game, and part regular Crash level.  By combining familiar elements like the boxes and creatures with the new mechanics, we could add to the gameplay variety without sacrificing the consistency of the game.

In addition to jet-ski, biplane, and motorcycle levels, we also added a number of other new mechanics (swimming, bazooka, baby T-rex, etc.) and brought back most of Crash 2’s extensive control set.  We tried to give each level one or more special hooks by adding gameplay and effect features.  Warped has nearly twice as many different creatures and gameplay modes as Crash 2.  The third game clocked in at 122,000 lines of GOOL object control code, as compared to 68,000 for the second game and 49,000 for the first!  The stability of the basic system and the proven technical structure allowed the programmers to concentrate on gameplay features, packing more fun into the game.  This was only possible because on a fixed hardware like the Playstation, we were fairly confident that the Warped engine was reasonably optimal for the Crash style of game.  Had we been making the game for a moving target such as the PC, we would have been forced to spend significant time updating to match the new target, and would have not been able to focus on gameplay.

Furthermore, we had time, even with such a tight schedule, to add more game longevity features.  The Japanese version of Warped has Pocketstation support.  We improved the quality of the boss characters significantly, improved the tuning of the game, added power-ups that can be taken back to previously played levels, and added a cool new time trial mode.  Crash games have always had two modes of play for each level: completion (represented by crystals) and box completion (represented by gems).  In Warped we added the time trial mode (represented by relics).  This innovative new gameplay mode allows players to compete against themselves, each other, and preset goals in the area of timed level completion.  Because of this each level has much more replay value and it takes more than twice as long to complete Warped with 100% as it does Crash 2.

Technical risk: more more more!

As usual, we felt the need to add lots more to the new game.  Since most of Crash 2’s animations were still appropriate, we concentrated on adding new ones.  Warped has a unique animated death for nearly every way in which Crash can loose a life.  It has several times again the animation of the second game.  In addition, we added new effects like the arbitrary water surface, and large scale water effects.  Every character, including Crash got a fancy new shadow that mirrors the animated shape of the character.

All these additions forced us to squeeze even harder to get the levels into memory.  Additional code overlays, redundant code mergers, and the sacrifice of thirteen polka dotted goats to the level compression AI were necessary.

Conclusions

In conclusion, the consistency of the console hardware platform over its lifetime allows the developer an opportunity to successively improve his or her code, taking advantage of techniques and knowledge learned by themselves and others.  With each additional game the amount of basic infrastructure programming that must be done is reduced, and so more energy can be put into other pursuits, such as graphical and gameplay refinements.

_

Yet more Crash Bandicoot posts can be found here.

Subscribe to the blog (on the right), or follow me at:

Andy:  or blog

Also, peek at my novel in progress: The Darkening Dream

or more posts on

GAMES or BOOKS/MOVIES/TV or WRITING or FOOD.

Crash Bandicoot – Teaching an Old Dog New Bits – part 2

This is the eleventh of a now lengthy series of posts on the making of Crash Bandicoot. Click here for the PREVIOUS or for the BEGINNING of the whole mess.

The text below is another journal article I wrote on making Crash in 1999. This is the second part, the FIRST can be found here.

 

And finally to the point!

Both the rapid lifecycle of a video game console and the consistency of the hardware promote video game development strategies that are often very different from the strategies used to make PC video games.   A side-effect of these strategies and the console development environment is that video games released later in the life of a console tend to be incrementally more impressive than earlier titles, even though the hardware hasn’t changed.  Theoretically, since the hardware doesn’t change, first generation software can be as equally impressive as later generation titles, but in reality this is seldom the case.  It may seem obvious that a developer should try to make a first generation title as impressive as a last generation title, but actually this strategy has been the downfall of many talented developers.  There are many good and valid reasons why software improves over time, and the understanding and strategizing about these reasons can greatly improve the chances for a developer to be successful in the marketplace.

Difficulties of Console Video Game Development

There are many difficulties that are encountered when developing a console video game, but the following is a list of several major issues:

  • Learning curve
  • Hardware availability and reliability
  • Bottlenecks
  • Operating System / Libraries
  • Development tools
  • In-house tools
  • Reuse of code
  • Optimization

Learning curve

The learning curve may be the most obvious of all difficulties, and is often one of the most disruptive elements of a video game’s development schedule.  In the past, video games were often developed by small groups of one or more people, had small budgets, ran in a small amount of memory, and had short schedules.  The graphics were almost always 2D, and the mathematics of the game were rarely more than simple algebra.  Today, video games have become much more complicated, and often require extremely sophisticated algorithms and mathematics.  Also, the pure size of the data within a game has made both the run-time code and the tool pipeline require extremely sophisticated solutions for data management issues.  Furthermore, 3D mathematics and renderings can be very CPU intensive, so new tricks and techniques are constantly being created.   Also, the developer will often have to use complex commercial tools, such as 3D modeling packages, to generate the game’s graphics and data.  Add into this the fact that Operating Systems, API’s, and hardware components are continually changing, and it should be obvious that just staying current with the latest technology requires an incredible amount of time, and can have a big impact on the schedule of a game.

The console video game developer has the additional burden that, unlike the PC where the hardware evolves more on a component or API level, new console hardware is normally drastically different and more powerful than the preceding hardware.  The console developer has to learn many new things, such as new CPU’s, new operating systems, new libraries, new graphics devices, new audio devices, new peripherals, new storage devices, new DMA techniques, new co-processors, as well as various other hardware components.  Also, the console developer usually has to learn a new development environment, including a new C compiler, a new assembler, a new debugger, and slew of new support tools.  To complicate matters, new consoles normally have many bugs in such things as the hardware, the operating system, the software libraries, and in the various components of the development environment.

The learning curve of the console hardware is logarithmic in that it is very steep at first, but tends to drop off dramatically by the end of the console life-span.  This initial steep learning curve is why often the first generation software isn’t usually as good as later software.

Hardware availability and reliability

Hardware isn’t very useful without software, and software takes a long time to develop, so it is important to hardware developers to try to encourage software developers to begin software development well in advance of the launch date of the hardware.  It is not uncommon for developers to begin working on a title even before the hardware development kits are available.  To do this, developers will start working on things that don’t depend on the hardware, such as some common tools, and they may also resort to emulating the hardware through software emulation.  Obviously, this technique is not likely to produce software that maximizes the performance of the hardware, but it is done nevertheless because of the time constraints of finishing a product as close as possible to the launch of the console into the market.  The finished first generation game’s performance is not going to be as good as later generations of games, but this compromise is deemed acceptable in order to achieve the desired schedule.

When the hardware does become available for developers, it is usually only available in limited quantity, is normally very expensive, and eventually ends up being replaced by cheaper and more reliable versions of the hardware at some later time.  Early revisions of the hardware may not be fully functional, or may have components that run at a reduced speed, so are difficult to fully assess, and are quite scarce since the hardware developer doesn’t want to make very many of them.  Even when more dependable hardware development kits becomes available, they are usually difficult to get, since production of these kits is slow and expensive, so quantities are low, and software developers are in competition to get them.

The development kits, especially the initial hardware, tend to have bugs that have to be worked around or avoided.  Also, the hardware tends to have contact connection problems so that it is susceptible to vibrations, oxidation, and overheating.  These problems generally improve with new revisions of the development hardware.

All of these reasons will contribute to both a significant initial learning curve, and a physical bottleneck of having an insufficient number of development kits.   This will have a negative impact on a game’s schedule, and the quality of first generation software often suffers as a consequence.

Bottlenecks

An extremely important aspect to console game development is the analysis of the console’s bottlenecks, strengths, weaknesses, and overall performance.  This is critical for developing high performance games, since each component of the console has a fixed theoretical maximum performance, and undershooting that performance may cause your game to appear under-powered, while overshooting may cause you to have to do major reworking of the game’s programming and/or design.  Also, overshooting performance may cause the game to run at an undesirable frame rate, which could compromise the look and feel of the game.

The clever developer will try to design the game to exploit the strengths of the machine, and circumvent the weaknesses.  To do this, the developer must be as familiar as possible with the limitations of the machine.  First, the developer will look at the schematic of the hardware to find out the documented sizes, speeds, connections, caches, and transfer rates of the hardware.  Next, the developer should do hands-on analysis of the machine to look for common weaknesses, such as:  slow CPU’s, limited main memory, limited video memory, limited sound memory, slow BUS speeds, slow RAM access, small data caches, small instruction caches, small texture caches, slow storage devices, slow 3D math support, slow interrupt handling, slow game controller reading, slow system routines, and slow polygon rendering speeds.  Some of these things are easy to analyze, such as the size of video memory, but some of these things are much trickier, such as polygon rendering speeds, because the speed will vary based on many factors, such as source size, destination size, texture bit depth, caching, translucency, and z-buffering, to name just a few.  The developer will need to write several pieces of test code to study the performance of the various hardware components, and should not necessarily trust the statistics found in the documentation, since these are often wrong or misleading.

A developer should use a profiler to analyze where speed losses are occurring in the run-time code.  Most programmers will spend time optimizing code because the programmer suspects that code is slow, but doesn’t have any empirical proof.  This lack of empirical data means that the programmer will invariable waste a lot of time optimizing things that don’t really need to be optimized, and will not optimize things that would have greatly benefited from optimization. Unfortunately, a decent profiler is almost never included in the development software, so it is usually up to the individual developer to write his own profiling software.

The testing of performance is an extremely important tool to use in order to maximize performance.  Often the reason why software improves between generations is that the developers slowly learn over time how to fully understand the bottlenecks, how to circumvent the bottlenecks, and how to identify what actually constitutes a bottleneck.

Operating system / Libraries

Although the consoles tend to have very small operating systems and libraries when compared to the operating systems found on the PC, they are still an important factor of console video game development.

Operating systems and support libraries on video game consoles are used to fill many needs.  One such need is that the hardware developer will often attempt to save money on the production of console hardware by switching to cheaper components, or by integrating various components together.  It is up to the operating system to enable these changes, while having the effects of these changes be transparent to both the consumer and the developer.  The more that the operating system abstracts the hardware, the easier it is for the hardware developer to make changes to the hardware.  However, remember that this abstraction of the hardware comes at the price of reduced potential performance.  Also, the operating system and support libraries will commonly provide code for using the various components of the console.  This has the advantage that developers don’t have to know the low-level details of the hardware, and also potentially saves time since different developers won’t have to spend time creating their own versions of these libraries.  The advantage of not having to write this low level code is important in early generation projects, because the learning curve for the hardware is already quite high, and there may not be time in the schedule for doing very much of this kind of low-level optimization.  Clever developers will slowly replace the system libraries over time, especially with the speed critical subroutines, such as 3D vector math and polygonal set-up.  Also, the hardware developer will occasionally improve upon poorly written libraries, so even the less clever developers will eventually benefit from these optimizations. Improvements to the system libraries are a big reason why later generation games can increase dramatically in performance.

Development tools

On the PC, development tools have evolved over the years, and have become quite sophisticated.  Commercial companies have focused years of efforts on making powerful, optimal, polished, and easy to use development tools.  In contrast, the development tools provided for console video game development are generally provided by the hardware manufacturer, and are usually poorly constructed, have many bugs, are difficult to use, and do not produce optimal results.  For example, the C compiler usually doesn’t optimize very well; the debugger is often crude and, ironically, has many bugs; and there usually isn’t a decent software profiler.

Initially developers will rely on these tools, and the first few generations of software will be adversely effected by their poor quality.  Over time, clever programmers will become less reliant on the tools that are provided, or will develop techniques to work around the weaknesses of the tools.

In-house tools

In-house tools are one of the most important aspects of producing high performance console video game software.  Efficient tools have always been important, but as the data content in video games has grown exponentially over the last few years, in-house tools have become increasingly more important to the overall development process.  In the not too distant future, the focus on tool programming techniques may even exceed the focus on run-time programming issues.  It is not unreasonable that the most impressive video games in the future may end up being the ones that have the best support tools.

In-house tools tend to evolve to fill the needs of a desired level of technology.  Since new consoles tend to have dramatic changes in technology over the predecessor consoles, in-house tools often have to be drastically rewritten or completely replaced to support the new level of technology.  For example, a predecessor console may not have had any 3D support, so the tools developed for that console most likely would not have been written to support 3D.  When a new console is released that can draw 100,000 polygons per second, then it is generally inefficient to try to graft support for this new technology onto the existing tools, so the original tools are discarded.  To continue the previous example, let’s say that the new tool needs to be able to handle environments in the game that average about 500,000 polygons, and have a maximum worst case of 1 million polygons.  Most likely the tool will evolve to the point where it runs pretty well for environments of the average case, but will most likely run just fast enough that the slowest case of a 1 million polygons is processed in a tolerable, albeit painful, amount of time.  The reasons for this are that tools tend to grow in size and complexity over time, and tools tend to only be optimized to the point that they are not so slow as to be intolerable.  Now let’s say that a newer console is released that can now drawn 1 million polygons a second, and now our worst case environment is a whopping 1 billion polygons!  Although the previous in-house tool could support a lot of polygons, the tool will still end up being either extensively rewritten or discarded, since the tool will not be able to be easily modified to be efficient enough to deal with this much larger amount of polygons.

The ability of a tool to function efficiently as the data content processed by the tool increases is referred to as the ability of the tool to “scale”.  In video game programming, tools are seldom written to scale much beyond the needs of the current technology; therefore, when technology changes dramatically, old tools are commonly discarded, and new tools have to be developed.

The in-house tools can consume a large amount of the programming time of a first generation title, since not only are the tools complicated, but they evolve over time as the run-time game code is implemented.  Initial generations of games are created using initial generations of tools.  Likewise, later generations of games are created using later generations of tools.  As the tools become more flexible and powerful, the developer gains the ability to create more impressive games.  This is a big reason why successive generations of console games often make dramatic improvements in performance and quality over their predecessors.

Reuse of code

A problem that stems from the giant gaps in technology between console generations is that it makes it difficult to reuse code that was written for a previous generation of console hardware.  Assembly programming is especially difficult to reuse since the CPU usually changes between consoles, but the C programming language isn’t much of a solution either, since the biggest problem is that the hardware configurations and capabilities are so different.  Any code dealing directly with the hardware or hardware influenced data structures will have to be discarded.  Even code that does something universal in nature, such as mathematical calculations, will most likely need to be rewritten since the new hardware will most likely have some sort of different mathematical model.

Also, just as the in-house tool code becomes outdated, so does game code that is written for less powerful technology.  Animation, modeling, character, environment, and particle code will all need to be discarded.

In practice, very little code can be reused between technological leaps in hardware platforms.  This means that earlier generation games will not have much code reuse, but each new generation of games for a console will be able to reuse code from its predecessors, and therefore games will tend to improve with each new generation.

Optimization

By definition, having optimal code is preferable to having bulky or less efficient code.  It would therefore seem logical to say that to achieve maximum performance from the hardware, all code should be completely optimal.  Unfortunately, this is not an easy or even practical thing to achieve, since the writing of completely optimal code has many nuances, and can be very time-consuming.  The programmer must be intimately familiar with the details of the hardware.  He must fully understand how to implement the code, such as possibly using assembly language since C compilers will often generate inefficient code.  The programmer must make certain to best utilize the CPU caches.  Also, the programmer should understand how the code may effect other pieces of code, such as the effects of the code on the instruction cache, or the amount of resources that are tied up by his code. The programmer has to know how to effectively use co-processors or other devices.  He must develop an algorithm that is maximally efficient when implemented. Also, the programmer will need to measure the code against the theoretical maximum optimal performance to be certain that the code can indeed be considered to be fully optimal.

Writing even highly optimized code for specific hardware is time-consuming, and requires a detailed knowledge of both the hardware and the algorithm to be optimized.  It is therefore commonly impractical to attempt to highly optimize even a majority of the  code.  This is especially true when writing a first generation game, since the developer is not familiar enough with the intricacies of the hardware to be very productive at writing optimal code.  Instead, it is more productive to only spend time optimizing the code that most profoundly effects the efficiency of the overall game.  Unfortunately, the identifying of what code should be optimized can also be a difficult task.  As a general rule, the code to be optimized is often the code that is executed most frequently, but this is not always the case.  Performance analyzing, testing, and profiling can help identify inefficient code, but these are also not perfect solutions, and the experience of the programmer becomes an important factor in making smart decisions concerning what code should be optimized.

As a programmer gets more familiar with the intricacies of the hardware, he will be able to perform a greater amount of optimizations.  Also, when developing later generation games, the programmer will often be able to reuse previously written optimized code.  Plus, there is often more time in the schedule of later generation titles in which to perform optimizations.  This accumulation of optimal code is a big reason why games often improve in performance in successive generations.

Other Considerations

There are many other reasons to explain the improvement in performance of next generation software that are not directly related to programming for a video game console.  For example, developers will often copy or improve upon the accomplishments of other developers.  Likewise, developers will avoid the mistakes made by others.  Also, developers acquire and lose employees fairly frequently, which creates a lot of cross-pollination of ideas and techniques between the various development houses.  These and many other reasons are important, but since they are not specific to console video game development, they have not been specifically discussed.

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